Washback Effect of High-Stakes Tests on Teaching and Learning of English Language in Ghana

1.Introduction: Topic Background
2.Problem Statement
3.Hypotheses
4.Objectives
5.Research Questions
6.Methodology
7.Findings
8.Conclusion
9.Pedagogical Implications
 
Topic Background

Sometimes foreign language learners, who cannot speak the language fluently perform better in high-stakes tests in the language than fluent native speakers.

Problem Statement

§The English language syllabus for both junior high school and senior high school levels has listening, reading, writing, and speaking components
§The BECE and WASSCE English language tests do not assess students on all the language skills.
§Teachers and learners always concentrate on what is going to be assessed  (Pan 2009, McEwen 1995, Alderson & Wall 1993)
§ There may be a negative washback effect on teaching and learning of English language in junior and senior high schools in Ghana.

Israel: Shohamy, Donitsa-Schmidt & Ferman, (1996)----ASL &EFL

U.S.A: Alderson & Hamp-Lyons, (1996)----TOEFL

Hong Kong: Cheng, (1999)----HKCEE

U.K: Green (2007)----IELTS

Taiwan: Shih (2007)----GEPT

Libya: Onaiba (2013)----BECE

Iran: Ghorbani & Neissari (2015)----IUEE

Ghana: Ofori-Bekoe, (2006)----SSSCE

              Agbeti, (2011)----BECE

§Washback effect of high stakes tests on teaching and learning of English language in Ghana has received no attention.
 
Washback Hypotheses
Alderson & Wall, (1993)
 

1) A test will influence teaching.

2) A test will influence learning.

3) A test will influence what teachers teach.

4) A test will influence how teachers teach.

5) A test will influence what learners learn.

6) A test will influence how learners learn.

7) A test will influence the rate and sequence of teaching.

8) A test will influence the rate and sequence of learning.

9) A test will influence the degree and depth of teaching.

10) A test will influence the degree and depth of learning.

11) A test will influence attitudes to content, method, etc. of teaching/learning.

12) Tests that have important consequences will have washback.

13) Tests that do not have important consequences will have no washback.

14) Tests will have washback on all learners and teachers.

15) Tests will have washback effects for some teachers and some learners,

but not for others.

 

 

Type of Work: 
Thesis
Stage: 
Ongoing