# STUDENTS’ CONCEPTUAL UNDERSTANDING OF THE ARITHMETIC MEAN AND THE STANDARD DEVIATION: A CASE STUDY AT THE UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION, WINNEBA

INTRODUCTION

- In Ghana, statistics is taught as a topic under mathematics as Collecting and Handling Data at the basic level until the SHS.

And it is the aim of every introductory statistics course to train students to be efficient

users, consumers and communicators of statistics (Qian, 2011).

- Barkley (1995) argues that accurate interpretation of statistics is a necessary prerequisite for an informed and educated citizenry today.
- Wells (1903) asserted that, "Statistical thinking will one day be as necessary for efficient citizenship as the ability to read and write."

- By the end of Senior High School (SHS), Ghanaian students are expected as part of the general objectives of the core mathematics, to be able to do simple descriptive statistics.

- As a result, right from the primary level pupils are taught some descriptive statistics through to the JHS and SHS levels.
- All these are efforts to help achieve the main rationale for the mathematics syllabus (CRDD, 2012).

- The arithmetic mean and the standard deviation are two fundamental statistical concepts encountered in every introductory statistics course
- This is because they seem to appear in numerous every day contexts and also for their predominant use in most inferential statistics. (Leon & Zawojewski, 1990; Peters, 2011).

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Thesis

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